Cercetări arheologice preventive pe strada General Florescu nr. 23. sector 3. Bucureşti / Rescue excavations in General Florescu street no. 23, 3td sector. Bucharest
|Limba de redactare||română (şi un rezumat în engleză)|
|TITLU în română||Cercetări arheologice preventive pe strada General Florescu nr. 23. sector 3. Bucureşti|
|Excerpt||On the future emplacement of a new building there had to be undertaken rescue archeological excavation between November 2005 and April 2006. The diggings uncovered two cellars. These cellars are part of a bigger, rectangular basement. This one is formed from four separate cellars, two of them go under building from no. 21, and two have been archeologically excavated. Based on the construction system, we appreciate these cellars where built during the first half of the XVIII century. These cellars where abandoned and destroyed during the first half of the XIX. The emplacement was later used for the construction of the new buildings. Archaeological inventory (local pottery, faience, imported porcelain, coins) is characteristic for the XIX century and was almost exclusively discovered in the two cellars.
The excavations uncovered, among other things, a small lot of coins. It is a small monetary deposit made of five coins, as well as four others discovered out of a clear archaeological context. The hoard, discovered when the chimney in a certain house was demolished, was scattered by the demolishing works. Thus, we do not know if all pieces were recovered, or if the recovered pieces were part of the same monetary hoard. The hoard, as it was recovered, is made up of five modem and contemporary gold, silver and common metal coins. The entire lot entered the collection of the Museum of the City of Bucharest.
We find surprising the association of gold and silver coins with those of common metal. Anyway, the oldest coin is dated to 1800 and according to the last one, the coins seem to have been hidden after 1906. The lot is a local accumulation, the coins which compose it being an indication of the owner's financial situation. Thus, a first monetary sequence in the hoard is made up of three gold coins, Dutch ducats struck in the first decade of the 19th century. The emissions of the Batavian Republic and of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are relatively rare among the monetary discoveries in Romania. In our area have circulated mainly ducats from the United Provinces of the Lower Countries, struck in the a7th -18th centuries, as well as from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, struck beginning with the second decade of the l9th century. In the first quarter of the 19th century, the market of the Romanian Principalities was dominated by the gold Ottoman coins. The Dutch ducat -called locally the ,.galben'' or the .,ţechin"- has won a special fame in the period. It was found in 19th century hoards and represented a common utility along the Venetian or Austrian ducats. It is common knowledge that the creation of a national monetary system was forbidden by the Ottoman rule at that moment, and thus the Romanian authorities tried through different measures to regulate the monetary flow. Thus, after the 1828-1829 Russian-Ottoman War, Moldavia, as well as Walachia, has adopted the two metals system, the ratio between gold and silver being established by the state. The Dutch ducat was chosen as a monetary standard. A second sequence in our monetary package is formed by a 15 kopecks silver coin, struck in Russia during Tsar Alexander II's reign (1855-1881 ). Russian coins are relatively frequent discoveries in Romania. Generally, they reached the Romanian territory either during the Russian Ottoman Wars -brought by the troops or the accompanying merchants- or during the temporary Russian control of the Romanian territories. Thus, the 15 kopecks coin struck in 1862 under Alexander II could have reached the Romanian Principalities during the 1876-1878 war.
Finally, the third and last sequence in the hoard is the 5 bani coin struck in 1906, made of copper-nickel, struck by the Kingdom of Romania under Charles 1 (1866-1881-1914). On October 11 1th/23rd 1866, through the firman that established Charles I as Prince, the Ottoman Gate authorized the Romanian Principalities to strike its own coin, but bearing the insignia of the Ottoman government. As a consequence, in 1867 the national monetary system was adopted. Bronze, silver and gold coins were struck. The first copper-nickel mint in Romania is dated to 1900, according to the law from April 3rd/16th 1900, which approved the minting of such coins.
Thus, the hoard discovered in Bucharest, on Gl. Florescu St. –and we stress that only under the form it was recovered- represents a document that brings, first of all, important information concerning the gold coin circulation in the Romanian space and the economic and social situation in the beginning of 20th century Romania.
In the case of the hoard in question, the treasuring intent is evident. At the border between the two centuries - the 19th and the 20th -, Romania' s economy was underdeveloped. The heterogeneous aspect of the coin package indicates a lack of assurance on the part of the owner.
But our opinion on the deposit, in its present form, is hesitant. We think that the initial hoard was formed only by the three gold coins. The 1906 5 bani coin -as we have already mentioned-, as well as the 1862 silver 15 kopecks coin, are coins which were presented along with the hoard due to the mix up created by the excavations of the chimney, which caused the destruction of the archaeological layers and the scattering of the objects embedded inside them. As for the four coins discovered out of archaeological context at 23 Gl. Florescu St., these are all bronze coins -subdivisions-, among the first Romanian mints, struck during Charles I' s reign (1866-1881-1914) in 1867 in Birmingham. Great Britain- 2 bani (2), 5 bani and 10 bani.
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|Editura||Publicat de: Agir|